Academic Studies

Validity and Reliability of Nine Types Temperament Scale

The aim of this study is to develop a scale compatible with the Nine Types Temperament Model (NTTM), which did not have any prior measurement tools to scientifically prove its reliability and validity. NTTM is created by re-evaluating the Enneagram System –a system that defines nine personality types- used for analyzing and comprehending ego mechanisms. Nine Types Temperament Scale (NTTS) which is a self-rated instrument composed of 91 items with three-point Likert type was developed from this model and applied to 990 participants. Confirmatory factor analyses were carried out in order to evaluate whether the scale fits to the model related to the temperament model. In exploratory factor analyses of the scale eigen values of nine factors vary between 8.089 and 1.661, and represent 39.04% of the total variance. In confirmatory analyses of the scale CFI value is 0.88, GFI value is 0.84, IFI value is 0.88 and RMSEA value is 0.05. Test-retest reliability of the scale was evaluated with 46 participants. Cronbach alpha value of the whole scale is 0.75, while Cronbach alpha values for every temperament type were calculated as 0.77, 0.79, 0.68, 0.71, 0.80, 0.74, 0.71, 0.83 and 0.77 respectively. Concurrent validity was performed with Cloninger's TCI (Temperament and Character Inventory) and Akiskal's TEMPS-A (Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego Autoquestionnaire Version). The types of NTTM showed significant correlations with TCI and TEMPS-A. Results of the study support that NTTS is a reliable and valid scale.

Yılmaz, E. D., Gençer, A. G., Aydemir, Ö., Yılmaz, A., Kesebir, S., & Ünal, Ö., ve ark. (2014a). Validity and Reliability of Nine Types Temperament Scale. Education and Science, 39(171), 115-137.

Click here for the full article

Is Individual Temperament Centered Psychotherapy Possible: A Proposal Based on Nine Types Temperament Model

Although there are many psychotherapy approaches today, it can be stated that a psychotherapy approach that is based on the temperament concept, which constitutes the structural basis of individual differences, does not exist. Even though the models focusing on explaining the temperament and the personality draw attention to the importance of these concepts in psychotherapy, these models did not formulate an important psychotherapy approach that places these concepts in its center. In fact, temperament is a key concept, which forms the smallest psychological building stone of individuals, determines the psychopathologic predispositions and the duration of experiencing of the psychopathology by an individual. Thus, temperament concept can be a focus point for the therapeutic approaches. In this study, we proposed the basic approaches and methods of individual temperament centered psychotherapy from the perspective of Nine Types Temperament Model that centers temperament concept. This can be an awarenessbased, non-eclectic, different, holistic and systematic psychotherapy approach which can enable the balancing of behaviors, emotions and ideas of an individual. At the same time, we tried to define a general course of actions for therapists to structure what kind of a therapeutic approach they will apply, which can be considered as a starting point to form a psychotherapy model that considers the human being in a holistic way from normal to psychopathology and focuses on causality.

Click here for the full article.

Static/Unchangeable and Dynamic/Changeable Nature of Personality According to the Nine Types Temperament Model: A Proposal

Researchers which aimed to understand human behaviours have propounded many opinions about temperament and personality. Some of them centralize temperament while others centralize personality in their studies. They defined temperament and personality in many ways and tried to explain similar and different features of these concepts. The disagreement of the researchers on the definitions of temperament and personality concepts caused confusion in explaining the relations between these concepts. Besides, this confusion brings along the question “which one is the changeable and unchangeable part of the human behaviours, temperament or personality?� Nine Types Temperament Model (NTTM) is new model that considers human behaviour with a temperament based approach, claims to formulate a holistic model to the definitions, boundaries, scopes, interrelations of temperament, character and personality. The aim of this study is to explain the relation of personality with temperament and to propose an approach which conceptualizes the personality’s unchangeable -originating from the temperament- and changeable facets from the NTTM perspective, which can be a conceptual base for future empirical studies. In this study; first we explained the definitions and the relations of temperament, character and personality propounded by NTTM based on the current literature. Second we proposed “natural personality� concept in order to explain unchangeable features that originate from the individual’s temperament type. Also we proposed “synthetic personality� concept in order to explain the traits that do not exist in the temperament type of the individual and are acquired after birth through parents, school and social transference. In conclusion, in this study we tried to offer a new perspective to the researchers for understanding the nature of temperament -character- personality concepts and the link between them. Additionally, we propounded the concepts of natural and synthetic personality that will be able to answer the questions about changeable and unchangeable facets of personality.

Click here for the full article..

Validity-Reliability of Nine Types Temperament Scale Adolescent Form (NTTS-A) and Relationship Between Temperament Types and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

The purpose of this study is developing adolescent form (11-16 years old) of Nine Types Temperament Scale (NTTS) depending on Nine Types Temperament Model (Study 1) and evaluating and searching the relationship between Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Types of NTTM (Study 2). Sample of Study I consist of 1240 students who are between 11 and 16 years old. Pilot form of the Scale which consists of 90 items is tested with confirmatory factor analysis and with convergent and discriminant validity and the last version of the measure which consist of 82 items is prepared. Basic Personality Traits Inventory (BPTI) which depends on Fife Factor Model is used for Criterion-related validation. Results show that NTTS-A is valid and reliable measure for evaluating temperament types between 11-16 years adolescents. Their fit index is calculated as χ2 /df < 3; SRMR, 0.06; RMSEA, 0.045; CFI, 0.909: TLI, 0901 supported to validity data. Sample of Study II consist of 56 adolescents who are diagnosed with ADHD according to DSM-IV diagnosis criteria and 56 students who does not get diagnosed with ADHD or mental retardation/medical disorder. Temperament types of participants are evaluated by the agency of Study-I and NTTS-A, which is developed appropriate for Turkish culture. Indication of the study shows that there are more NTT7 and NTT8 in NTTM types between adolescents with ADHD than the group, who are not diagnosed with ADHD. As a result, it is iscussed that traits which belong to some temperament types could have a predisposing effect on emergence of ADHD, experiencing these traits extreme severely could cause a view similar to ADHD and ADHD which is a neurodevelopmental disease could interact with temperament traits of person, in that way it could illustrate ADHD clinic. Available findings support critics about that students are labelled as ADHD specially in the last years in education environment even if they have mostly not developmental problems and students are diagnosed easily with limited observations. However, it is asserted that diagnosis based on temperament, treatment and psychosocial support programmes could be formed and effects of ADHD, which is a factor interacting with temperament traits, on personality structure of adolescents on their development process, could be predicted. Our study has the feature of being the first measure developing study which is intended to evaluate temperament types of adolescents between 11-16 years old and also it is has the feature of being the first study which searches relationship between NTTM types and ADHD.

Click here for the full article..

Evolution of a historical system to a new temperament model: Nine Types of Temperament Model

Temperament is an important variable for understanding people and formulating their disposition to psychopathology. A model which determines temperament and personality definitions, their scope and relationships with each other, core features of temperament type structures, normal and psychopathological behavioral characteristics of temperament types, changes in extreme stress or relaxation situations is needed.

Nine Type Temperament Model (NTTM) is a model which is formed by using Enneagram System (ES) and has a theoretical background and is compatible with current diagnostic systems and phenomena. Es, suggests that there are nine basic types. The model accepts that the types are affected by types on both sides of these types symbolized by numbers from 1 to 9 (wing effect), and that the types react apart from behavioral patterns in the case of extreme stress and relaxation (stress and comfortable line). Unlike ES, NTTM argues that such types defined as personality types should be defined as temperament types depending the thought that the types express the set of innate traits. It also adopts that the types cannot be defined through a single temperament feature. NTTM has been a holistic approach to the temperament, character and personality concepts that ES commentators ignore. NTTM aims to establish a theoretical cause and effect relationship between temperament structures and normal and psychopathological processes by focusing more intensively on the relationship between temperament types and psychopathological symptoms, psychiatric diagnosis and treatment strategies.

Click here for the full article..

From Enneagram to Nine Types of Temperament Model: A Suggestion

The concepts of temperament, character and personality are handled by many disciplines about interpersonal differences. These concepts, which are related but different, are often used interchangeably. Nine Types of Temperament Model (NTTM) which is a new temperament model, was created with the interpretation of the Enneagram system. The model provides a new perspective to the study of the definitions, boundaries, scopes and relations between each other, as well as to examine the differences between the individuals. In this paper, the similarities and differences between the Enneagram and NTTM, the nine basic types of temperament, and the behaviors and attitudes that are different from the normal in situations of stress and relaxation are described. At the same time, we suggest the DTMM as a new and holistic model that can explain the causes of human behaviour, and can be used in research and applications in psychiatry, psychology and education.

Click here for the full article..

Relation of the Nine Types of Temperament Model with Personality Disorders

Relation of the Nine Types of Temperament Model with personality disorders Objective: Aim of this study is to determine the correspondence between personality categories and the types making up the Nine Types of Temperament Model (NTTM) –a new temperament model which evaluates personality disorders within the context of temperament traits and maladaptive personality features-and conceptualization of NTTM types. Method: The sample group is composed of 117 participants with a personality disorder. SCID II and Nine Types of Temperament Scale (NTTS) were applied to participants. Results: According to the findings, all NTTM types have shown significant correlation with at least one personality disorder. According to the regression analysis results, it was determined that the NTTM types were explained by personality disorders at a rate of 19-41%. Conclusions: In this study, it is found that knowing the temperament features that form the basis of an individual's personality structure is helpful to diagnose and to determine the tendency to develop personality disorders that are pathological responses to personality characteristics. In addition, this study brings up questions such as whether the individual differences between patients with the same personality disorders can be evaluated on the basis of temperament and whether it is possible to determine therapy and treatment approaches according to an individual's temperament type.

Click here for the full article..

The Relation between the Nine Types Temperament Model and the Five Factor Personality Model in a Turkish Sample Group

Aims: In this study, the probable relationships between the types and factors of the Five Factor Model of Personality (FFM), which is a contemporary personality model, and the Nine Types Temperament Model (NTTM), which is a new temperament model, were investigated. Separately, the power of some of the types of NTTM to predict the dimensions of FFM was evaluated, as well. Original Research Article Yılmaz et al.; BJMMR, 11(4): 1-11, 2016; Article no.BJMMR.20303 2 Study Design: Cross-sectional survey. Place and Duration of Study: Bezmialem Vakıf University (BVU) Psychiatry Outpatient Clinic (Turkey) between June 2013 and January 2014. Methodology: The sampling of the research consists of 247 healthy volunteers. Materials of the research include the Five-Factor Personality Inventory (FFPI) and The Nine Type Temperament Scale (NTTS). Results: All types of NTTM showed a significant correlation along with at least one of the FFPI factors at the level of 0.40 and above. Furthermore, the types of NTTM were determined to have predicted the dimensions of the FFPI by 34% and above. Conclusion: Significant correlations were found between the types of NTTM and the FFM factors. The results are discussed in regards to how the differences in the conceptual approach can be understood and the area of use between NTTM and FFM.

Click here for the full article..